Bind circuit modules to VPR architecture

Each defined circuit model should be linked to an FPGA module defined in the original part of architecture descriptions. It helps FPGA-circuit creating the circuit netlists for logic/routing blocks. Since the original part lacks such support, we create a few XML properties to link to Circuit models.

Switch Blocks

Original VPR architecture description contains an XML node called switchlist under which all the multiplexers of switch blocks are described. To link a defined circuit model to a multiplexer in the switch blocks, a new XML property circuit_model_name should be added to the descriptions.

Here is an example:

<switch_block>
  <switch type="mux" name="<string>" circuit_model_name="<string>"/>
</switch_block>
  • circuit_model_name="<string>" should match a circuit model whose type is mux defined in Circuit Library.

Connection Blocks

To link the defined circuit model of the multiplexer to the Connection Blocks, a circuit_model_name should be annotated to the definition of Connection Blocks switches.

Here is the example:

<connection_block>
  <switch type="ipin_cblock" name="<string>" circuit_model_name="<string>"/>
</connection_block>
  • circuit_model_name="<string>" should match a circuit model whose type is mux defined in Circuit Library.

Channel Wire Segments

Similar to the Switch Boxes and Connection Blocks, the channel wire segments in the original architecture descriptions can be adapted to provide a link to the defined circuit model.

<segmentlist>
  <segment name="<string>" circuit_model_name="<string>"/>
</segmentlist>
  • circuit_model_name="<string>" should match a circuit model whose type is chan_wire defined in Circuit Library.

Physical Tile Annotation

Original VPR architecture description contains <tile> XML nodes to define physical tile pins. OpenFPGA allows users to define pin/port of physical tiles as global ports.

Here is an example:

<tile_annotations>
  <merge_subtile_ports tile="<string>" port="<string>"/>
  <global_port name="<string>" is_clock="<bool>" clock_arch_tree_name="<string>" is_reset="<bool>" is_set="<bool>" default_val="<int>">
    <tile name="<string>" port="<string>" x="<int>" y="<int>"/>
    ...
  </global_port>
</tile_annotations>

For subtile port merge support (see an illustrative example in Fig. 69):

  • tile="<string>" is the name of tile, that is defined in VPR architecture

  • port="<string>" is the name of a port of the tile, that is defined in VPR architecture

Warning

This is an option for power users. Suggest to enable for those global input ports, such as clock and reset, whose Fc is set to 0 in VPR architecture!!!

Note

When defined, the given port of all the subtiles of a tile will be merged into one port. For example, a tile consists of 8 subtile A and 6 subtile B and all the subtiles have a port clk, in the FPGA fabric, all the clk of the subtiles A and B will be wired to a common port clk at tile level.

Note

When merged, the port will have a default side of TOP and index of 0 on all the attributes, such as width, height etc.

Difference in netlists with and without subtile port merging

Fig. 69 Difference in netlists with and without subtile port merging

For global port support:

  • name="<string>" is the port name to appear in the top-level FPGA fabric.

  • is_clock="<bool>" define if the global port is a clock port at the top-level FPGA fabric. An operating clock port will be driven by proper signals in auto-generated testbenches.

  • clock_arch_tree_name="<string>" defines the name of the programmable clock network, which the global port will drive. The name of the programmable clock network must be a valid name (See details in Clock Network (.xml))

  • is_reset="<bool>" define if the global port is a reset port at the top-level FPGA fabric. An operating reset port will be driven by proper signals in testbenches.

  • is_set="<bool>" define if the global port is a set port at the top-level FPGA fabric. An operating set port will be driven by proper signals in testbenches.

Note

A port can only be defined as clock or set or reset.

Note

All the global port from a physical tile port is only used in operating phase. Any ports for programmable use are not allowed!

  • default_val="<int>" define if the default value for the global port when initialized in testbenches. Valid values are either 0 or 1. For example, the default value of an active-high reset pin is 0, while an active-low reset pin is 1.

Note

A global port could be connected from different tiles by defining multiple <tile> lines under a global port!!!

<tile name="<string>" port="<string>" x="<int>" y="<int>"/>
  • name="<string>" is the name of a physical tile, e.g., name="clb".

  • port="<string>" is the port name of a physical tile, e.g., port="clk[0:3]".

  • x="<int>" is the x coordinate of a physical tile, e.g., x="1". If the x coordinate is set to -1, it means all the valid x coordinates of the selected physical tile in the FPGA device will be considered.

  • y="<int>" is the y coordinate of a physical tile, e.g., y="1". If the y coordinate is set to -1, it means all the valid y coordinates of the selected physical tile in the FPGA device will be considered.

Note

The port of physical tile must be a valid port of the physical definition in VPR architecture! If you define a multi-bit port, it must be explicitly defined in the port, e.g., clk[0:3], which must be in the range of the port definition in physical tiles of VPR architecture files!!!

Note

The linked port of physical tile must meet the following requirements:

  • If the global_port is set as clock through is_clock="true", the port of the physical tile must also be a clock port.

  • If not a clock, the port of the physical tile must be defined as non-clock global

  • The port of the physical tile should have zero connectivity (Fc=0) in VPR architecture

A more illustrative example:

Fig. 70 illustrates the difference between the global ports defined through circuit_model and tile_annotation.

Difference between global port definition through circuit model and tile annotation

Fig. 70 Difference between global port definition through circuit model and tile annotation

When a global port, e.g., clk, is defined in circuit_model using the following code:

<circuit_model>
  <port name="clk" is_global="true" is_clock="true"/>
</circuit_model>

Dedicated feedthrough wires will be created across all the modules from top-level to primitive.

When a global port, e.g., clk, is defined in tile_annotation using the following code:

<tile_annotations>
  <global_port name="clk" is_clock="true">
    <tile name="clb" port="clk"/>
  </global_port>
</tile_annotations>

Note that a global port can also be defined to drive only a partial bit of a port of a physical tile.

<tile_annotations>
  <global_port name="clk" is_clock="true">
    <tile name="clb" port="clk[3:3]"/>
  </global_port>
</tile_annotations>

Clock port clk of each clb tile will be connected to a common clock port of the top module, while local clock network is customizable through VPR’s architecture description language. For instance, the local clock network can be a programmable clock network.

Primitive Blocks inside Multi-mode Configurable Logic Blocks

The architecture description employs a hierarchy of pb_types to depict the sub-modules and complex interconnections inside logic blocks. Each leaf node and interconnection in the pb_type hierarchy should be linked to a circuit model. Each primitive block, i.e., the leaf pb_types, should be linked to a valid circuit model, using the XML syntax circuit_model_name. The circuit_model_name should match the given name of a circuit_model defined by users.

<pb_type_annotations>
  <!-- physical pb_type binding in complex block IO -->
  <pb_type name="io" physical_mode_name="physical"/>
  <pb_type name="io[physical].iopad" circuit_model_name="iopad" mode_bits="1"/>
  <pb_type name="io[inpad].inpad" physical_pb_type_name="io[physical].iopad" mode_bits="1"/>
  <pb_type name="io[outpad].outpad" physical_pb_type_name="io[physical].iopad" mode_bits="0"/>
  <!-- End physical pb_type binding in complex block IO -->

  <!-- physical pb_type binding in complex block CLB -->
  <!-- physical mode will be the default mode if not specified -->
  <pb_type name="clb">
    <!-- Binding interconnect to circuit models as their physical implementation, if not defined, we use the default model -->
    <interconnect name="crossbar" circuit_model_name="mux_2level"/>
  </pb_type>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle" physical_mode_name="physical"/>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.frac_logic.frac_lut6" circuit_model_name="frac_lut6" mode_bits="0"/>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.ff" circuit_model_name="static_dff"/>
  <!-- Binding operating pb_type to physical pb_type -->
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[n2_lut5].lut5inter.ble5.lut5" physical_pb_type_name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.frac_logic.frac_lut6" mode_bits="1" physical_pb_type_index_factor="0.5">
    <!-- Binding the lut5 to the first 5 inputs of fracturable lut6 -->
    <port name="in" physical_mode_port="in[0:4]"/>
    <port name="out" physical_mode_port="lut5_out" physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset="1"/>
  </pb_type>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[n2_lut5].lut5inter.ble5.ff" physical_pb_type_name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.ff"/>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[n1_lut6].ble6.lut6" physical_pb_type_name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.frac_logic.frac_lut6" mode_bits="0">
    <!-- Binding the lut6 to the first 6 inputs of fracturable lut6 -->
    <port name="in" physical_mode_port="in[0:5]"/>
    <port name="out" physical_mode_port="lut6_out"/>
  </pb_type>
  <pb_type name="clb.fle[n1_lut6].ble6.ff" physical_pb_type_name="clb.fle[physical].fabric.ff" physical_pb_type_index_factor="2" physical_pb_type_index_offset="0"/>
  <!-- End physical pb_type binding in complex block IO -->
</pb_type_annotations>
<pb_type name="<string>" physical_mode_name="<string>">

Specify a physical mode for multi-mode pb_type defined in VPR architecture.

Note

This should be applied to non-primitive pb_type, i.e., pb_type have child pb_type.

  • name="<string>" specifiy the full name of a pb_type in the hierarchy of VPR architecture.

  • physical_mode_name="<string>" Specify the name of the mode that describes the physical implementation of the configurable block. This is critical in modeling actual circuit designs and architecture of an FPGA. Typically, only one physical_mode should be specified for each multi-mode pb_type.

Note

OpenFPGA will infer the physical mode for a single-mode pb_type defined in VPR architecture

<pb_type name="<string>" physical_pb_type_name="<string>"
circuit_model_name="<string>" mode_bits="<int>"
physical_pb_type_index_factor="<float>" physical_pb_type_index_offset="<int>">

Specify the physical implementation for a primitive pb_type in VPR architecture

Note

This should be applied to primitive pb_type, i.e., pb_type have no children.

Note

This definition should be placed directly under the XML node <pb_type_annotation> without any intermediate XML nodes!

  • name="<string>" specifiy the full name of a pb_type in the hierarchy of VPR architecture.

  • physical_pb_type_name=<string> creates the link on pb_type between operating and physical modes. This syntax is mandatory for every primitive pb_type in an operating mode pb_type. It should be a valid name of primitive pb_type in physical mode.

  • circuit_model_name="<string>" Specify a circuit model to implement a pb_type in VPR architecture. The circuit_model_name is mandatory for every primitive``pb_type`` in a physical_mode pb_type.

  • mode_bits="<int>" Specify the configuration bits for the circuit_model when operating at an operating mode. The length of mode_bits should match the port size defined in circuit_model. The mode_bits should be derived from circuit designs while users are responsible for its correctness. FPGA-Bitstreamm will add the mode_bits during bitstream generation.

  • physical_pb_type_index_factor="<float>" aims to align the indices for pb_type between operating and physical modes, especially when an operating mode contains multiple pb_type (num_pb>1) that are linked to the same physical pb_type. When physical_pb_type_name is larger than 1, the index of pb_type will be multipled by the given factor.

  • physical_pb_type_index_offset=<int> aims to align the indices for pb_type between operating and physical modes, especially when an operating mode contains multiple pb_type (num_pb>1) that are linked to the same physical pb_type. When physical_pb_type_name is larger than 1, the index of pb_type will be shifted by the given factor.

<interconnect name="<string>" circuit_model_name="<string>">
  • name="<string>" specify the name of a interconnect in VPR architecture. Different from pb_type, hierarchical name is not required here.

  • circuit_model_name="<string>" For the interconnection type direct, the type of the linked circuit model should be wire. For multiplexers, the type of linked circuit model should be mux. For complete, the type of the linked circuit model can be either mux or wire, depending on the case.

Note

A <pb_type name="<string>"> parent XML node is required for the interconnect-to-circuit bindings whose interconnects are defined under the pb_type in VPR architecture description.

<port name="<string>" physical_mode_port="<string>"
physical_mode_pin_initial_offset="<int>"
physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset="<int>"/>
physical_mode_port_rotate_offset="<int>"/>

Link a port of an operating pb_type to a port of a physical pb_type

  • name="<string>" specifiy the name of a port in VPR architecture. Different from pb_type, hierarchical name is not required here.

  • physical_mode_pin="<string>" creates the link of ``port of pb_type between operating and physical modes. This syntax is mandatory for every primitive pb_type in an operating mode pb_type. It should be a valid port name of leaf pb_type in physical mode and the port size should also match.

    Note

    Users can define multiple ports. For example: physical_mode_pin="a[0:1] b[2:2]". When multiple ports are used, the physical_mode_pin_initial_offset and physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset should also be adapt. For example: physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset="1 0")

  • physical_mode_pin_initial_offset="<int>" aims to align the pin indices for port of pb_type between operating and physical modes, especially when part of port of operating mode is mapped to a port in physical pb_type. When physical_mode_pin_initial_offset is larger than zero, the pin index of pb_type (whose index is large than 1) will be shifted by the given offset.

    Note

    A quick example to understand the initial offset For example, an initial offset of -32 is used to map

    • operating pb_type bram[0].dout[32] with a full path memory[dual_port].bram[0]

    • operating pb_type bram[0].dout[33] with a full path memory[dual_port].bram[0]

    to

    • physical pb_type bram[0].dout_a[0] with a full path memory[physical].bram[0]

    • physical pb_type bram[0].dout_a[1] with a full path memory[physical].bram[0]

    Note

    If not defined, the default value of physical_mode_pin_initial_offset is set to 0.

  • physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset="<int>" aims to align the pin indices for port of pb_type between operating and physical modes, especially when an operating mode contains multiple pb_type (num_pb>1) that are linked to the same physical pb_type. When physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset is larger than zero, the pin index of pb_type (whose index is large than 1) will be shifted by the given offset, each time a pin in the operating mode is binded to a pin in the physical mode.

    Note

    A quick example to understand the rotate offset For example, a rotating offset of 9 is used to map

    • operating pb_type mult_9x9[0].a[0] with a full path mult[frac].mult_9x9[0]

    • operating pb_type mult_9x9[1].a[1] with a full path mult[frac].mult_9x9[1]

    to

    • physical pb_type mult_36x36.a[0] with a full path mult[physical].mult_36x36[0]

    • physical pb_type mult_36x36.a[9] with a full path mult[physical].mult_36x36[0]

    Note

    If not defined, the default value of physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset is set to 0.

Warning

The result of using physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset is fundementally different than physical_mode_port_rotate_offset!!! Please read the examples carefully and pick the one fitting your needs.

  • physical_mode_port_rotate_offset="<int>" aims to align the port indices for port of pb_type between operating and physical modes, especially when an operating mode contains multiple pb_type (num_pb>1) that are linked to the same physical pb_type. When physical_mode_port_rotate_offset is larger than zero, the pin index of pb_type (whose index is large than 1) will be shifted by the given offset, only when all the pins of a port in the operating mode is binded to all the pins of a port in the physical mode.

    Note

    A quick example to understand the rotate offset For example, a rotating offset of 9 is used to map

    • operating pb_type mult_9x9[0].a[0:8] with a full path mult[frac].mult_9x9[0]

    • operating pb_type mult_9x9[1].a[0:8] with a full path mult[frac].mult_9x9[1]

    to

    • physical pb_type mult_36x36.a[0:8] with a full path mult[physical].mult_36x36[0]

    • physical pb_type mult_36x36.a[9:17] with a full path mult[physical].mult_36x36[0]

    Note

    If not defined, the default value of physical_mode_port_rotate_offset is set to 0.

Note

It is highly recommended that only one physical mode is defined for a multi-mode configurable block. Try not to use nested physical mode definition. This will ease the debugging and lead to clean XML description.

Note

Be careful in using physical_pb_type_index_factor, physical_pb_type_index_offset and physical_mode_pin_rotate_offset! Try to avoid using them unless for highly complex configuration blocks with very deep hierarchy.